The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) tools in various sectors, including ophthalmology, has brought forth innovative solutions. In the specialized realm of ophthalmology, characterized by its unique language and practices, effective communication and patient education can be challenging. This is particularly pronounced in the case of glaucoma, a multifaceted eye condition that demands precise instructions for medication management. The emergence of AI chatbots, exemplified by ChatGPT, presents a promising avenue for bridging communication gaps and enhancing patient education in the field of glaucoma care.

Unlocking the Potential of AI Chatbots

At the forefront of this revolution is ChatGPT, an AI chatbot developed by OpenAI. This AI model simulates human-like conversations using a question-and-answer format, demonstrating its capability to provide accurate and credible responses to medical inquiries. Remarkably, even in its base form, ChatGPT delivers informative answers without extensive fine-tuning. A notable testament to its potential lies in its ability to respond adeptly to queries posed by glaucoma specialists, as highlighted in an article authored by Saif Aldeen AlRyalat, MD.

Leveraging ChatGPT for Patient Engagement

The effectiveness of ChatGPT in patient education was explored through a study involving a set of glaucoma-related questions. To assess the clarity of ChatGPT’s responses, the researchers utilized the Flesch Kincaid Grade Level Score—a measure of the comprehension level required to understand the content. The results showcased that the chatbot’s responses were easily comprehensible for individuals with a high school education or above.

Assessing the Quality of AI Chatbot-Generated Advice

A recently conducted study scrutinized the quality of ophthalmology advice dispensed by AI chatbots compared to human physicians. Expert ophthalmologist reviewers displayed the ability to discern responses generated by humans versus those by chatbots with an accuracy rate of 61%. Notably, both sets of responses exhibited similar levels of incorrect information, potential harm, extent of harm, and alignment with perceived medical consensus. These findings resonate with prior research underscoring the efficacy of Language Model Models (LLMs) in various medical tasks.

Navigating AI Chatbots in Glaucoma Care

The potential role of AI chatbots in glaucoma care is noteworthy. By distilling intricate medical jargon into easily understandable information, these chatbots bridge the chasm between the specialized language of ophthalmology and the comprehension levels of patients. However, it is pivotal to acknowledge that while AI chatbots offer substantial value, they should serve as a complementary tool rather than a replacement for human healthcare providers. The empathy and cultural sensitivity exhibited by human doctors remain indispensable components of patient care.

Envisioning the Future with AI Chatbots

In summary, AI chatbots, exemplified by ChatGPT, hold transformative potential in reshaping patient education within the glaucoma care landscape and beyond. By simplifying complex medical concepts and delivering tailored instructions, these chatbots can enhance adherence to treatment plans and bolster patient outcomes. However, the successful integration of AI into medical practices hinges on ethical considerations and upholding the intrinsic human touch in healthcare.

A demonstration “Glaucoma Education Chatbot” using ChatGPT can be found here


Saif Aldeen AlRyalat, MD, & Malik Y. Kahook, MD. “The Use of Artificial Intelligence Chatbots in Ophthalmology.” Glaucoma Physician, December 2022. URL:

David A Lee, Gloria Wu, Katherine Tien, Rohan Madhok, Vrinda Inani, Eddie Zhang, Jae Yong Lee, Weichen Zhao, Alaap Rag; Can ChatGPT™, an “intelligent” chatbot, be used to educate our glaucoma patients?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):379.

Bernstein IA, Zhang Y, Govil D, et al. Comparison of Ophthalmologist and Large Language Model Chatbot Responses to Online Patient Eye Care Questions. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(8):e2330320. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.30320